Those in white marble come from Italy,[60] some shafts located in the area of the mihrab are in red porphyry imported from Egypt,[73] while those made of greenish or pink marble are from quarries of Chemtou, in the north-west of current Tunisia. It was under his auspices that the construction of the minaret began. Extensive works under the Aghlabids two centuries later (9th Cent.AD/CE) gave the mosque its present aspect. Area : 9000m2 Also known as : Mosque of Uqba Plan of Kairouan “one of the oldest places of worship in the Islamic world, as well as a model for all … [16] With the gradual increase of the population of Kairouan and the consequent increase in the number of faithful, Hisham ibn Abd al-Malik, Umayyad Caliph in Damascus, charged his governor Bishr ibn Safwan to carry out development work in the city, which included the renovation and expansion of the mosque around the years 724–728. [78], The mosque's mihrab, whose decor is a remarkable witness of Muslim art in the early centuries of Islam, is distinguished by its harmonious composition and the quality of its ornaments. Be sure to bring a bunch of cash if you're interested in purchasing Tunisian rugs- they are handmade, traditional crafts of the area and are stunningly beautiful. Enrolling in a course lets you earn progress by passing quizzes and exams. The meeting of the central nave with the bay along the qibla wall forms a square area in front of the mihrab. Study.com has thousands of articles about every The niche of the mihrab is two metres long, 4.5 metres high and 1.6 metres deep. It's 32-meter minaret is located near the middle of the north side of the courtyard. The coating around them is decorated with blue plant motifs dating from the eighteenth century or the first half of the nineteenth century. Planing of the mosque:- o The exterior of the Great Mosque of Kairouan, with buttressed walls, is in the typically austere Aghlabid design. The combination formed by the courtyard and the galleries that surround it covers an immense area whose dimensions are about 90 metres long and 72 metres in width. Description is … credit by exam that is accepted by over 1,500 colleges and universities. The geometry analysis of the mosque was first performed at the Great Mosque of Kairouan, in Tunisia. The three chains, connected by a suspension ring, are each fixed to the plate by an almond-shaped finial. study He then made the mihrab. Research that the Golden Section applied to a … The octagonal dome of the Dome of the Rock most closely resembles which structure? It was destroyed and rebuilt in 703 by Hassan Ibn Numan. In the middle of nowhere is one of Tunisia's most beautiful and largest (by floor plan) mosques. © copyright 2003-2020 Study.com. [43] Overall, the proportions and general layout of the façade of the south portico, with its thirteen arches of which that in the middle constitutes a sort of triumphal arch crowned with a cupola, form an ensemble with "a powerful air of majesty", according to the French historian and sociologist Paul Sebag (1919–2004). Structurally given the soft grounds subject to compaction, the buttressed towers added stability to the entire mosque. Great mosque of kairouan 1. [46] Freed from its impurities, the water flows into an underground cistern supported by seven-metre-high pillars. The wall of the mihrab is covered with 28 panels of white marble, carved and pierced, which have a wide variety of plant and geometric patterns including the stylised grape leaf, the flower and the shell. It is the oldest minaret in the Muslim world,[53][54] and it is also the world's oldest minaret still standing. From the outside, the Great Mosque of Kairouan is a fortress-like building with its 1.90 metres thick massive ocher walls, a composite of well-worked stones with intervening courses of rubble stone and baked bricks. [64], Enlightened by impressive chandeliers which are applied in countless small glass lamps,[65] the nave opens into the south portico of the courtyard by a monumental delicately carved wooden door, made in 1828 under the reign of the Husainids. Divided into two groups, they are dated from the beginning of the second half of the ninth century but it is not determined with certainty whether they were made in Baghdad or in Kairouan by a Baghdadi artisan, the controversy over the origin of this precious collection agitates the specialists. It required battling Byzantines; convincing Berbers, the indigenous people of North Africa, to accept centralized Muslim rule; and persuading Middle Eastern merchants to move to North Africa. You can test out of the In the early twentieth century, the minbar had a painstaking restoration. Share: Kairouan's medina (old town) is the most atmospheric and best preserved in Tunisia, … The minaret rises up, slightly off the axis of the minaret, which was built by Yaghmurâsan in about 1236. [58] From the outside, the dome of the mihrab is based on an octagonal drum with slightly concave sides, raised on a square base, decorated on each of its three southern, Easter and western faces with five flat-bottomed niches surmounted by five semi-circular arches,[24][58] the niche in the middle is cut by a lobed oculus enrolled in a circular frame. The minbar, situated on the right of the mihrab, is used by the imam during the Friday or Eids sermons, is a staircase-shaped pulpit with an upper seat, reached by eleven steps, and measuring 3.93 metres' length to 3.31 metres in height. 45, n°1, pages 103 and 105, 2007, Okba Ibn Nafaa Mosque in Kairouan (Mosque of Uqba) website, Panoramic visit of the Great Mosque of Kairouan, Sacred Destinations : Great Mosque of Kairouan, Great Mosque of Kairouan (Qantara Mediterranean Heritage), Video of the mihrab of the Great Mosque of Kairouan, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Great_Mosque_of_Kairouan&oldid=995123092, 7th-century establishments in the Umayyad Caliphate, Articles with dead external links from June 2020, Articles with dead external links from September 2018, Articles with permanently dead external links, Articles with French-language sources (fr), Articles with dead external links from October 2017, Articles with dead external links from April 2019, Articles with dead external links from January 2020, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Enclosure and gates of the Mosque of Uqba, This page was last edited on 19 December 2020, at 10:21. What is the Difference Between Blended Learning & Distance Learning? The Great Mosque of Cordoba. To learn more, visit our Earning Credit Page. From Tunis, Sousse and Hammamet: Visit Kairouan and its great mosque. V, 1969, pp. [42] The great central arch of the south portico, is flanked on each side by six rhythmically arranged horseshoe arches, which fall on twin columns backed by pillars. L’université zaytounienne et la société tunisienne, [62], The central nave, a sort of triumphal alley which leads to the mihrab,[63] is significantly higher and wider than the other sixteen aisles of the prayer hall. The mihrab is set in a niche covered by a semi-dome that is painted with foliage. 1–38, History of Medieval Arabic and Western European domes, Great Mosque of Kairouan (discoverislamicart.org), Great Mosque of Kairouan – Kairouan, Tunisia, The Great Mosque (kairouan-cci2009.nat.tn). The vast complex boasts fortress-like walls enclosing a prayer hall and a huge marble courtyard. Earn Transferable Credit & Get your Degree. It consists of three tapering levels, the last of which is topped with a small ribbed dome that was most probably built later than the rest of the tower. Visit the Architectural Structures Study Guide page to learn more. The main minaret is centered on the north. [88], At the time of its greatest splendor, between the ninth and eleventh centuries AD, Kairouan was one of the greatest centres of Islamic civilisation and its reputation as a hotbed of scholarship covered the entire Maghreb. Ce minaret est une tour de plan carré à trois étages superposés et décroissants. What Can You Do With a Masters in History? [18] In 774, a new reconstruction accompanied by modifications and embellishments[19] took place under the direction of the Abbasid governor Yazid ibn Hatim. Services. Great Mosque of Kairouan Location: In the Medina, Kairouan, Tunisia Date of the monument: Hegira 221 / AD 836 Period / Dynasty: Umayyad,Abbasid Patron(s): Ziyadat Allah I. The Great Mosque of Tlemcen belongs to the same group as the other Almoravid mosques in Algeria, those in Nedroma and Algiers. The portico on the south side of the courtyard, near the prayer hall, includes in its middle a large dressed stone pointed horseshoe arch which rests on ancient columns of white veined marble with Corinthian capitals. The only component that might have been saved was the mihrab. It has served as a model for others, such as the Zaytuna Mosque located in Tunis. It is bordered on each side of a double row of arches rested on twin columns and surmounted by a carved plaster decoration consisting of floral and geometric patterns. Featuring kufic character suras are written in gold on vellum dyed with indigo, they are distinguished by a compact graph with no marks for vowels. imaginable degree, area of So, in 670 CE, conquering general Sidi Okba constructed a Friday Mosque (masjid-i jami` orjami`) in what was becoming Kairouan in modern day Tunisia. [7] The fame of the Mosque of Uqba and of the other holy sites at Kairouan helped the city to develop and expand. Bachelor of Architecture Salary Info: What Do Graduates Earn? This valuable collection, observed from the late nineteenth century by the French orientalists Octave Houdas and René Basset who mention in their report on their scientific mission in Tunisia published in the Journal of African correspondence in 1882, comprises according to the inventory established at the time of the Hafsids (circa 1293–1294) several Qur'ans and books of fiqh that concern mainly the Maliki fiqh and its sources. The columns with their Roman and Byzantine capitols both inside the prayer hall and surrounding the courtyard comprise the largest collection in any Muslim building. The Great Mosque of al-Mutawakkil was commissioned by the Abbasid caliph Al-Mutawakkil. The mosque is regarded as one of the oldest places to worship in the Islamic world and is the ideal example of African-Islamic architecture. The latest, dated the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries (mostly dating from the time of the Muradid Beys), are distinguished by an epigraphic decoration consists of long black and red texts on olive green background to those painted from 1618 to 1619, under the reign of Murad I Bey (1613–1631), while those back to the eighteenth century have inscriptions in white naskhi script on an orange background. In Kairouan the Great Mosque was built in stages between 836 and 866. According to the German archaeologist Christian Ewert, the special arrangement of reused columns and capitals surrounding the mihrab obeys to a well-defined program and would draw symbolically the plan of the Dome of the Rock. Its minaret is three stories tall and is located slightly off center on the northern side. In addition to its spiritual prestige,[3] the Mosque of Uqba is one of the masterpieces of Islamic architecture,[4][5][6] notable among other things for the first Islamic use of the horseshoe arch. Introduction This paper undertakes a geometrical and a numerical analysis of some architectural drawings of the Great Mosque of Kairouan, in Tunisia. This reflects the fact that, unlike the rest of the mosque, the enclosure has undergone significant changes to ensure the stability of the building (adding many buttresses). Only the eastern side had a good alignment. [44], View of the courtyard on the side of the prayer hall facade, Porch topped with a ribbed dome rising in the middle of the south portico of the courtyard, Courtyard seen from one of the arched galleries, Portico located on the eastern side of the courtyard, Interior view of the eastern portico of the courtyard, Interior view of the western portico of the courtyard. The maqsura, located near the minbar, consists of a fence bounding a private enclosure that allows the sovereign and his senior officials to follow the solemn prayer of Friday without mingling with the faithful. Quick View. [22][23] At the same time, the mihrab's ribbed dome was raised on squinches. Get the unbiased info you need to find the right school. Wooden brackets offer a wide variety of style and decor in the shape of a crow or a grasshopper with wings or fixed, they are characterised by a setting that combines floral painted or carved, with grooves. [12] The front façade of the porch has a large horseshoe arch relied on two marble columns and surmounted by a frieze adorned with a blind arcade, all crowned by serrated merlons (in a sawtooth arrangement). [83] Probably made by cabinetmakers of Kairouan (some researchers also refer to Baghdad), it consists of an assembly of more than 300 finely carved wood pieces with an exceptional ornamental wealth (vegetal and geometric patterns refer to the Umayyad and Abbasid models), among which about 90 rectangular panels carved with plenty of pine cones, grape leaves, thin and flexible stems, lanceolate fruits and various geometric shapes (squares, diamonds, stars, etc.). (1936) `The Jami Mosque of Quairawan”, Almaaref, Cairo, pp.12-26. »[32], At the same time, the doctor and Anglican priest Thomas Shaw (1692–1751),[33] touring the Tunis Regency and passes through Kairouan in 1727, described the mosque as that: "which is considered the most beautiful and the most sacred of Berberian territories", evoking for example: "an almost unbelievable number of granite columns".[34]. Kairouan (from UNESCO) Next lesson. All rights reserved. [72] The shafts of the columns are carved in marble of different colors and different backgrounds. More info. If one refers to the story of Al-Bakri, an Andalusian historian and geographer of the eleventh century, it is the mihrab which would be done by Uqba Ibn Nafi, the founder of Kairouan, whereas Lucien Golvin shares the view that it is not an old mihrab but hardly a begun construction which may serve to support marble panels and either goes back to work of Ziadet Allah I (817–838) or to those of Abul Ibrahim around the years 862–863. and career path that can help you find the school that's right for you. Great Mosque of Kairouan Location: In the Medina, Kairouan, Tunisia Date of the monument: Hegira 221 / AD 836 Period... 3. just create an account. Among the authors who have written on the subject and whose stories have survived[31] are Al-Bakri (Andalusian geographer and historian who died in 1094 and who devoted a sufficiently detailed account of the history of the mosque in his book Description of Septentrional Africa), Al-Nuwayri (historian who died in Egypt, 1332) and Ibn Nagi (scholar and historian of Kairouan who died around 1435). This building is considered the first Muslim oratory in the Maghreb, which is a region of western North Africa. This famous place of worship has two main elements, including the pillared prayer hall and the courtyard. The author published this book based on his study of the Mosque between 1931-1934 and 1936. A legend says they could not count them without going blind. The mosque, as it stands today, was built by the Aghlabid governor of Kairouan, Ziyadat Allah, between 817 and 838. It was built in stages over the course of almost two centuries. [9] With the decline of the city from the mid-11th century, the centre of intellectual thought moved to the University of Ez-Zitouna in Tunis.[10]. The sanctuary is 137 by 37 meters and there are 17 naves and 8 bays. Considered as the oldest example of concave mihrab, it dates in its present state to 862–863 AD.[79]. The Great Mosque of Kairouan, also known as the Mosque of Uqba, is a mosque situated in the UNESCO World Heritage town of Kairouan, Tunisia and is one of the most impressive and largest Islamic monuments in North Africa.Established by the Arab general Uqba ibn Nafi in the year 50 AH at the founding of the city of Kairouan, the mosque occupies an area of over 9,000 square metres. éditions Maison Tiers-Monde, This dome, whose construction goes back to the first half of the ninth century (towards 836), is one of the oldest and most remarkable domes in the western Islamic world. Covered with a thick coating completely painted, the concavity of the arch is decorated with intertwined scrolls enveloping stylised five-lobed vine leaves, three-lobed florets and sharp clusters, all in yellow on midnight blue background.[81]. Thus, the mosque, headquarters of a prestigious university with a large library containing a large number of scientific and theological works, was the most remarkable intellectual and cultural centre in North Africa during the ninth, tenth and eleventh centuries. This porch of seven metres high is topped with a square base upon which rests a semi-spherical ribbed dome; the latter is ribbed with sharp-edged ribs. At the end of the nineteenth century, the French writer Guy de Maupassant expresses in his book La vie errante (The Wandering Life), his fascination with the majestic architecture of the Great Mosque of Kairouan as well as the effect created by countless columns: "The unique harmony of this temple consists in the proportion and the number of these slender shafts upholding the building, filling, peopling, and making it what it is, create its grace and greatness. In 836, Emir Ziyadat Allah I reconstructed the mosque once more:[21] this is when the building acquired, at least in its entirety, its current appearance. Their use probably dates to the work done under the Umayyad governor Bishr ibn Safwan in about 725 AD, and they have been reused at the base of the tower. During this period, the Great Mosque of Kairouan was both a place of prayer and a centre for teaching Islamic sciences under the Maliki current. (From USD 74.62) | {{course.flashcardSetCount}} Among the finest works of this series, the pages of the Blue Qur'an, currently exhibited at Raqqada National Museum of Islamic Art, from a famous Qur'an in the second half of the fourth century of the Hegira (the tenth century) most of which is preserved in Tunisia and the rest scattered in museums and private collections worldwide. [89], In addition to studies on the deepening of religious thought and Maliki jurisprudence, the mosque also hosted various courses in secular subjects such as mathematics, astronomy, medicine and botany. Their edges, obtained from the lower parts of ancient cored columns,[47] support the string grooves back the buckets. [40][41] It is surrounded on all its four sides by a portico with double rows of arches, opened by slightly horseshoe arches supported by columns in various marbles, in granite or in porphyry, reused from Roman, Early Christian or Byzantine monuments particularly from Carthage. [60] The wooden rods, which usually sink to the base of the transom, connect the columns together and maintain the spacing of the arches, thus enhancing the stability of all structures which support the ceiling of the prayer hall.[74]. Notes and References: 1 The French spells it with “k” and without “w” as follows: Kairouan. Other scrolls and calligraphic Qur'ans, as that known as the Hadinah's Qur'an, copied and illuminated by the calligrapher Ali ibn Ahmad al-Warraq for the governess of the Zirid prince Al-Muizz ibn Badis at about 1020 AD, were also in the library before being transferred to Raqqada museum. [51], The interior includes a staircase of 129 steps, surmounted by a barrel vault, which gives access to the terraces and the first tier of the minaret. The upper edge of the minbar ramp is adorned with a rich and graceful vegetal decoration composed of alternately arranged foliated scrolls, each one containing a spread vine-leaf and a cluster of grapes. $198.73 per adult. The Mosque Plan and its Evolution. At the time of its construction, it was one of the largest in the world. It can also be referred to as Mosque of Uqba Ibn Nafi, in honor of its original founder. Plan_grande_mosquee_kairouan.jpg: Collection personnelle de Bertrand Bouret / *derivative work: Habib M'henni This W3C- unspecified vector image was created with Inkscape . The bay along the qibla wall and main longitudinal axis form a T-formation, which was an arrangement typical of the region. There are also many gates. Up Next. Centre italien d’études du haut Moyen Âge, Lucien Golvin, « Le mihrab de Kairouan », Kunst des Orients, vol. [56] Despite its massive form and austere decoration, it nevertheless presents a harmonious structure and a majestic appearance. It is longer (127.60 metres) on the east side than the west (125.20 metres), and shorter on the north side (72.70 metres) than the south (78 metres). The building is composed of a courtyard and prayer hall to the southeast. [66] This sumptuous door, which has four leaves richly carved with geometric motifs embossed on the bottom of foliages and interlacing stars, is decorated at the typanum by a stylised vase from which emerge winding stems and leaves. [12], During the thirteenth century, new gates were opened, the most remarkable, Bab Lalla Rihana dated from 1293, is located on the eastern wall of the enclosure. In the history of Art, its three-storey minaret is considered such a masterpiece and a model among the most prestigious monuments of Muslim architecture. This is the least expensive place to buy them. The Mosque of Uqba, one of the few religious buildings of Islam has remained intact almost all of its architectural and decorative elements, is due to the richness of its repertoire which is a veritable museum of Islamic decorative art and architecture. It is a cedar wood fence finely sculpted and carved on three sides with various geometric motifs measuring 2.8 metres tall, eight metres long and six metres wide. The mosque is about 70 by 125 meters and is an irregular rectangle in plan. Mohamedi explains that this deformation is due to the site conditions. Log in or sign up to add this lesson to a Custom Course. Old Saint Peter's, Rome b. Hagia Sophia, Constantinople c. Holy Sepulcher, Jerusalem d. San Vitale, Ravenna. The holy Mosque of Uqba is situated in the city.In 2014, the city had about 186,653 inhabitants.EtymologyThe name GeographyKairouan, the capital of Kairouan Governorate, lies south of Sousse, 50km from the east coast, 75km from Monastir and 184km from Tunis.HistoryBanu Hilal and Banu Sulaym)(Uqba ibn nafée Though the mosque is now near the northwest city ramparts established in the eleventh century, when Sidi Okba founded Kairouan, it was probably closer to the center of town, near what was the governor’s residence and the main thoroughfare, a symbolically prominent and physical visible part of the city. Our mission is to provide a free, world-class education to anyone, anywhere. Did you know… We have over 220 college a. The Great Mosque of Kairouan (Arabic: جامع القيروان الأكبر‎), also known as the Mosque of Uqba (جامع عقبة بن نافع), is a mosque situated in the UNESCO World Heritage town of Kairouan, Tunisia and is one of the most impressive and largest Islamic monuments in North Africa.[1]. One may conceivably compare its role to that of the University of Paris during the Middle Ages. The Great Mosque was literally and figuratively at the center of Kairouan activity, growth, and prestige. Behind the openwork hint, there is an oldest niche on which several assumptions were formulated. Editions Henri Laurens, The painted ceilings are a unique ensemble of planks, beams and brackets, illustrating almost thousand years of the history of painting on wood in Tunisia. first two years of college and save thousands off your degree. [82] Among all the pulpits of the Muslim world, it is certainly the oldest example of minbar still preserved today. A portico with double row of arches precede the spacious prayer hall, which takes the shape of a rectangle of 70.6 metres in width and 37.5 metres' depth. Oxford, 1977, o The grand minaret indicates the buildings significance and the mosque becomes far more impressive upon entering. The boards painted under the Hafsid period (during the thirteenth century) offers a floral decor consists of white and blue arches entwined with lobed green. Editions Oxford University Press, »[36], Today, the enclosure of the Great Mosque of Kairouan is pierced by nine gates (six opening on the courtyard, two opening on the prayer hall and a ninth allows access to the maqsura) some of them, such as Bab Al-Ma (gate of water) located on the western façade, are preceded by salient porches flanked by buttresses and surmounted by ribbed domes based on square tholobate which are porting squinches with three vaults. o Muslims can enter the mosque through nine different gates. To unlock this lesson you must be a Study.com Member. The Great Mosque of Kairouan is recognized as one of the most significant religious places in Islam. The mosque has great importance historically because it is the first mosque in the first Muslim town in the West. [77], The mihrab, which indicates the Qibla (direction of Mecca), in front of which stands the imam during the prayer, is located in the middle of the southern wall of the prayer hall. THE GREAT MOSQUE OF KAIROUAN 2. Nowadays the oldest Islamic pulpit in the world to be preserved intact is the minbar of the Great Mosque of Kairouan (in the city of Kairouan in Tunisia). {{courseNav.course.topics.length}} chapters | There are large rents for the maintenance of teachers. The transmission of knowledge was assured by prominent scholars and theologians which included Sahnun ibn Sa'id and Asad ibn al-Furat, eminent jurists who contributed greatly to the dissemination of the Maliki thought, Ishaq ibn Imran and Ibn al-Jazzar in medicine, Abu Sahl al-Kairouani and Abd al-Monim al-Kindi in mathematics. This minaret is a square-plan tower consisting of three superimposed stories of gradual size. Ninth and thirteenth centuries Cent.AD/CE ) gave the Mosque wa… the Mosque plan and its Great of! Their hypothesis can test out of the city and halted development in marble of different colors different. Ninth century age or education level cored columns, [ 47 ] support the string grooves the! Three superimposed stories of gradual size had a painstaking restoration rebuilt the sanctuary, the. Mosque in Samarra was built in 836, but it was built in 836, but it 's rich and! 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